Monthly Archives: August 2017

Fitness Aerobic – Training

Fitness in general includes both aerobic and anaerobic aspects. According to the priorities of the sportsman, one or the other of the two aspects will be emphasized, but the second one will not be neglected. The purpose of doing fitness exercises is, ideally, to create a complete athlete, able to face various physical and psychological demands.The object of aerobic fitness is the so-called cardio training, a term which refers to the cardio-vascular system and the heart muscle (myocardium). We’ll talk about trainings which do not make oxygen duty and which are generally called ‘trainings of aerobic effort’. More exactly, they refer to efforts which take a long time (more than 12 minutes) – usually they take between 20 and 60 minutes and they determine acceleration of cardiac frequency and lung ventilation. Efficiency in training requires a frequency between 60-80% of the maximum cardiac frequency (calculated according to the formula 720-age – in years).

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The typical exercises of aerobic fitness come from classic resistance sports (long distance running, cycling, swimming, fast walking, etc.) and from different aerobic training programs (aerobic gymnastics, step-aerobic, tae-bo, dance, etc.).Aerobic fitness uses specific cardio machines: treadmill, classic or elliptical trainer, stepper,etc. Dosing the aerobic effort depends on the somatic type and the actual objectives of each sportsman.Normally, the ectomorphic and mezomorphic types, which do not accumulate large quantities of subcutaneous adipose tissue, will need to practice for a rather short time (20-30 minutes per training in two or three trainings a week, in non-consecutive days). This time is necessary for realizing an effective cardiac stimulation, without the risk of losing muscular mass.For the endomorphic somatic type, ‘benefiting’ of a lot of adipose tissue, aerobic training must last 45-60 minutes and needs to take place 4-6 times a week.Even if trainings are extended (time, miles) and they are more frequent, their intensity, which is given by the cardiac rhythm per training, must remain high, so finally the body burns as many calories as possible. It is well-known that only after 20-30 minutes the body starts to mobilize the fat ‘deposits’. Before this, at the beginning of the training, the energetic support of the aerobic effort is ensured by the muscular and hepatic glycogen, the same as in anaerobic efforts, which are supported exclusively by the glycogen from the muscles and the liver.This is one of the main reasons for recommending, in programs designed for losing weight, aerobic exercises – they are the biggest and fastest ‘fat burners’. Of course, the other big benefits of these exercises appear at the cardiovascular, pulmonary, psychological and other levels.

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A real euphoria is observed at the psychological level during aerobic training. This is motivated by the big number of endorphins produced in the body by this type of effort. Endorphins, also called hormones of happiness, are not produced in such a big quantity during anaerobic effort. Anaerobic training determines a big release of catecholamine (adrenaline, noradrenalin), which are considered stress hormones.A disadvantage of aerobic fitness is, first of all, non-developing a strong and fortified musculature, because of the reduced muscle efforts. We can also observe (and must resist) the monotony of the training, which is long and repetitive.However, generally speaking, the advantages of aerobic fitness are remarkable and irreplaceable.

High Intensity Intervals vs Steady, State Aerobic Training – Which is Better?

Because I put a lot of emphasis on interval training, people sometimes get the idea that I’m against steady state training. This isn’t the case. With my programs, at least 75-80 % of you time is spent in an aerobic power and heart rate zone. I put the focus on the interval workouts as those are what tend to jump your power which you can then go faster aerobically. My approach is backwards to the conventional approach in that I focus on building maximum sustainable power and then translate that into longer distances.To go faster, longer you need to accomplish the following:Increased cardiac output – The heart and lungs need to be able to process more oxygen. Working muscles need oxygen, so the more you can process the faster you will potentially be able to go.Increase mitochondrial development in the working muscles – these are the little power plants in the muscle cells that convert food and fat into motion. The more mitochondria you have, the more energy the muscles can process. Limited energy through-put is often what limits endurance performance.Increase capillarization of the working muscles – capillaries are the little blood vessels that carry blood to the working muscles. The more capacity you have, the more blood that can carried to the muscle. More blood means more oxygen and more waste products carried away with each heartbeat.Muscular endurance – This is related to the above adaptations but isn’t just the legs. You need good muscular endurance in the prime mover and the support muscles. Strong legs don’t mean much if your back gives out.For those of you not sure of definitions, I’ll describe them in a way that you can practically apply.Aerobic pace – Aerobic mean with oxygen so aerobic pace is a pace that is hard enough that you are working but you are able to keep up with the oxygen demands. When you first start riding your heart rate and breathing will pick up. From the point when your breathing picks up and you feel like you are doing a moderate but noticeable workload to 90% of your functional threshold power will be aerobic.

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From a feel stand point aerobic riding will be a moderately hard pace that you can sustain for extended periods of time(1-4 hours). Breathing will increase and you’ll break a sweat but your legs won’t be burning.Anaerobic – Anaerobic means without oxygen so this is an intensity level where you can’t keep up with the oxygen demand. There isn’t a magical point that the body switches from the aerobic energy system to anaerobic. It’s a sliding scale. For the sake of our discussion Anaerobic pace is any level that is to hard to sustain for extended periods and is marked by the sensation of seeming to get harder at the same work level. Because you body isn’t getting enough oxygen you build a debt that leads to very heavy breathing and lots of burn.Intervals – This is any workout that alternates periods of hard work with recovery. A graph of power output will look like a mountain range with spikes during the on phase and valleys during the recovery phase.Most longer, steady training is predominantly aerobic while intervals are crossing the line into heavy anaerobic demands.Now here is where it can get complicated. Relatively short intervals (30 seconds) without enough recovery between them put a high load on the aerobic system as oxygen debt builds. The same holds true for short time trial efforts such as our fitness test, where you cover as much distance as possible in 8 minutes. That duration is too long for it to be totally anaerobic but the intensity level is too high for it to be purely aerobic. This type of work will overload both systems. The same holds true for Tabata intervals, Velmax intervals and 4X4s. Because these intervals hit both systems you get more bang for your training buck.While you get a lot of progress out of doing intervals, your long distance ability will be compromised if this is the only thing you do. There needs to be a balance between longer steady state efforts and high intensity interval training. The longer your event, the more of your overall training time will be taken up with long steady efforts. Long steady rides will build capacity in the slow twitch endurance muscle fibers and improve your bodies ability to use fat as a fuel source. This last part is one of the big secrets of improving endurance. The training and nutrition you can get your body using a larger percentage of calories from stored body fat during long events, saving carbohydrates for the hard efforts that will come at the end of the race.One of the big things I notice with athletes is that it is hard for them to dial it back to go easy enough for their aerobic training to be effective. It’s not that a slightly higher pace doesn’t give you training benefits, but a long ride that has repeated hard efforts (ie. hills) or nudges up near your functional threshold power (max 60 min power) for sustained periods will take you longer to recover from. A moderate aerobic workout will take 8-12 hours to recover from but when you do it at a higher intensity it can take 48 hours or longer, decreasing the quality of your following workouts as you won’t be recovered.Here the benefits of each type of training:High Intensity IntervalsBig effort yields big improvements – You have to go faster if you want to go faster. Intervals let you go faster in small doses which in time, leads to going faster for longer periods.Great for fat burning – Intervals kick up your metabolism leaving it elevated for hours after training. This phenomenon can be used to ramp up your fat loss progress.Hit muscle fibers that aerobic training doesn’t – Fast twitch fibers get trained with explosive, hard efforts. You need them for sprints, hard accelerations and hill climbing.Time efficient – You can overload both the aerobic and anaerobic system within one relatively short workout.

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Variety – There are intervals to target improving just about anything. Increase threshold power, improve hill climbing power, increase you recovery ability between hard efforts, improve lactic acid tolerance, improve muscular endurance, sprint faster.Interesting – This is particularly important in the winter. You have to pay attention when doing intervals so the time seems to go faster. Combined with the fact that the workouts are shorter means you are more likely to do them over the winter. While you need longer aerobic riding, intervals are the best thing to do in the off season if you can’t bring yourself to put in 60+ minutes steady on the trainer.Long, Steady Aerobic RidingImproves capacity of the Slow Twitch (endurance) muscle fibers – Unless you are on the track, most of your cycling energy is going to be developed aerobically. If you are riding for 2 hours or more, most of your energy has to come from the aerobic system. It’s just a fact. So improving the capacity of the aerobic muscle fibers will help you go faster for a longer period of time.Improve your fuel economy – Long, steady rides improve your bodies ability to tap into stored body fat as a fuel source. This effect isn’t targeted at weight loss but improving your endurance by cutting down on the amount of carbohydrate your muscles need to go a given speed.Improve recovery – Aerobic training, when done correctly (ie. not too hard) is great to do between your harder workouts as you will get a training benefit but won’t take days to recover from.As you can see if you race or do long rides, if you want to do them fast you have to use both types of training to maximize your progress. You can get in very good shape doing just intervals but to go long you need to go long.By Winston Endall

Effects of Aerobic Training in a Weight Loss Program

If you are looking at losing weight through the means of exercising then you should always select the kind of exercise that will make your heart beat faster. However the slower and longer an exercise it, it takes all the more time to burn the fat. Aerobic exercise is probably the best type of exercise to lose weight. The effects of aerobic training are tremendous since it helps in quick weight loss by transforming the fat content into energy.Being able to perform aerobic workouts that are easy have become extremely common, however not too many people are successful with this weight loss program. The mistakes made by people are that they only incorporate easy workouts often with minimal variations instead of practicing a variety of them to bring about successful effects of aerobic training.

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Practicing easy workouts do nothing to us and are not the best weight loss program that will burn calories; neither is it going to be useful to prevent any loss of muscle during dieting. Since these workouts are not the perfect weight loss program, they neither helps in improving the cardiovascular health, however depending on your fitness you could follow the routine in particular ways.The only way to get positive effects of aerobic training is by making use of these along with any other form of exercise; you should not make this the main focus of your workout if you are not going to incorporate tough workout regimes. Those workouts that are challenging are the only effective and efficient as compared to easy workouts therefore one should at least perform one set of challenging workout in a week. Challenging aerobic exercises bring better effects of aerobic training rather than workouts that are easy. This weight loss program help a lot since they help prevent muscle loss during dieting increase the metabolism and also help in improving the fitness level.The biggest secrets behind being able to sustain fit loss and improve fitness is to be able to find the right balance between giving your body the recovery needed and challenging yourself with the right kind of workouts. If you get work out easily then you should take things slower and work on it once by one. However, you will not have to recover fully before you follow the usual weight loss program since this where effects of aerobic training can be seen.

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Easy workout could speed recovery if you are worn out, this could also let you perform workouts that are challenging more frequently. You might also burn out the extra calories although the calories burnt during this stage are lesser than calories that are burnt during vigorous workouts, however, this also adds towards helping one lose the extra fat.

Fitness – Anaerobic Training

Anaerobic fitness is the force component of fitness in general, which also contains at least two other essential components: aerobic fitness (the part of cardio-vascular resistance) and joint mobility. Speed and skill are native qualities and they are not very relevant for the health state – which is the main concern in mass fitness, the one meant to keep the body in good shape. The purpose of anaerobic training programs is developing the force, the fortifying of the body or the muscular mass. There are situations when only force or muscle fortifying is intended. The typical example for these situations is given by the sports organized in categories, in which physical force (with the interdiction of going over a certain limit of weight) is tested.Growth of muscular mass determines increase of force and fortifying of the skeletal muscles. In this case, the fitness programs are very similar to body building trainings, without being followed by the spectacular, yet dangerous changes, specific to body building. The purpose of anaerobic fitness is uniform, balanced and harmonious development of all the muscles, without ignoring their functionality. This last idea is important for making a clear difference between fitness and the tendencies, many times narcissistic, manifested by body building practitioners. The sportsman who takes up fitness wants to be able to and is able to do something with his muscles, more than showing them in contests or in different other occasions and places (disco, swimming pool, clubs, etc.). One of the important characteristics of anaerobic fitness trainings is the use of general programs, during which all or almost all the muscles are worked out in one training session.

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In body building the programs are divided and trainings are focused every time on one, two or at most three groups of muscles; while in fitness one training can be focused on a certain area, but it does not exclude the other muscles, which will benefit, directly or indirectly, of at most one exercise for each group of muscles. This way, the programs are not excessively long; they take an average of one hour and fifteen minutes; thus the catabolic faze is avoided; this usually appears in very long training sessions (two hours or even more). Another modality of reducing the time of training is doing super-series whose object is to train two antagonistic groups of muscles (chest and back or biceps and triceps, etc.). Thus, for each group of muscles must be performed a series of exercises, without a break in between; the break is taken only at the end of this double effort.The programs can also contain triple series or even giant-series (more than three exercises one after the other). The intensity of the training can be considerably increased: many muscles can be trained in a short time. The weekly frequency of the training remains the same (three sessions); so the aerobic phase can be covered in the free days. If only three or even two weekly sessions are possible, mixed programs can be adopted: after the anaerobic fitness, always done at the beginning of the session, 15-20 minutes of aerobic fitness are added for balancing the two phases (anaerobic and aerobic). In this case, also, training must not take longer than one hour and a half; otherwise the phase of catabolic processes is initiated – a phase in which muscles ‘self-cannibalize’. Anaerobic fitness is recommended to all somatic types, with specific differences of modality of training.

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In the cases of ectomorphic and mezomorphic types, all the series (3 or 4) performed on the same machine must be finished, and then the machine and the group of muscles which is trained must be changed at the same time. This system is also called ‘workshop training’. In the case of the endomorphic type (the overweight), circuit training is preferred: the group of muscles trained is changed after every series and the whole circuit must be repeated three or four times. This type of training consumes more calories because an aerobic component is introduced by not having breaks between series and slightly increasing the cardiac frequency. Growth of muscular mass through fitness programs can’t exceed one weight category (5-6 kg), but they do not misbalance the other motion parameters.